Child Legitimation in Thailand

Child legitimation is an important legal process in Thailand that establishes the legal relationship between a child and their biological father. It grants legal recognition to children born out of wedlock, ensuring their rights, inheritance, and access to benefits. In this article, we will explore the legal process of child legitimation in Thailand, its implications for both parents and the child, and the significance of this procedure.

Understanding Child Legitimation

In Thailand, children born to unmarried parents are considered "illegitimate" under Thai law. Legitimation is the process by which a child's status changes from illegitimate to legitimate, granting them legal rights and privileges equivalent to those of children born to married couples.

Legal Framework

The legal framework governing child legitimation in Thailand is primarily found in the Civil and Commercial Code (Sections 1560-1568). It outlines the procedures and requirements for legitimation.

Eligibility for Legitimation

To be eligible for legitimation in Thailand, the following conditions must be met:

  1. Biological Relationship: The child seeking legitimation must be biologically related to the father.
  2. Consent: Both parents must consent to the legitimation. If one parent does not consent, the process cannot proceed.
  3. Legal Capacity: Both parents must be legally capable of providing consent. This means they must be of sound mind and not subject to legal incapacities.

The Process of Child Legitimation

Child legitimation in Thailand typically involves the following steps:

  1. Consent: Both parents must provide written consent for the legitimation. This is typically done at the local district office or an authorized government agency.
  2. Application: The parents, along with the child, must complete an application for legitimation, which includes their consent and supporting documents, such as birth certificates and identification.
  3. Verification: The authorities will verify the identity of both parents and ensure that the child is indeed their biological offspring.
  4. Registration: Once all requirements are met and verified, the child's birth record is amended to reflect their legitimated status.
  5. Issuance of Legitimation Certificate: After successful legitimation, a certificate is issued to the child, officially recognizing their legitimate status.

Implications of Child Legitimation

Child legitimation in Thailand carries several legal and practical implications for both parents and the child:

  1. Inheritance Rights: Legitimated children have the same inheritance rights as children born to married couples. They can inherit property and assets from both parents.
  2. Right to Bear the Father's Surname: After legitimation, the child has the right to bear the father's surname, which is significant in Thai culture.
  3. Access to Benefits: Legitimated children gain access to various benefits, such as social security and healthcare, provided by the father's employer or the government.
  4. Parental Responsibility: The father becomes legally responsible for the child's financial support, including child support and education expenses.
  5. Legal Standing: Legitimated children have legal standing to bring legal actions, claim benefits, and assert their rights as legitimate heirs.

Significance of Child Legitimation

Child legitimation is significant for several reasons:

  1. Legal Equality: It ensures that children born out of wedlock have the same legal rights and status as those born to married couples, promoting equality and protection under the law.
  2. Social Acceptance: Legitimation helps reduce societal stigma associated with illegitimacy, as the child gains the right to bear the father's surname.
  3. Financial Security: It provides financial security for the child by establishing the father's legal obligation to provide support.
  4. Cultural Importance: In Thai culture, a child bearing the father's surname is often considered a matter of pride and continuity of the family name.


Child legitimation in Thailand is a legal process that grants children born out of wedlock the same legal rights and status as those born to married couples. It is a significant step towards ensuring their financial security, inheritance rights, and social acceptance. While the process is relatively straightforward when both parents consent, it plays a crucial role in protecting the rights and well-being of children and promoting equality under the law. For unmarried parents in Thailand, child legitimation is a vital legal procedure that benefits both the child and the parents, providing them with legal recognition and security for the future.

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